Madhava Nidana Chapter 7 Krimi Nidanam
Table of ContentsIntroductionKrimi Bheda
- Bahya Krimi - External parasites
- Abhyantara Krimi
- Kaphaja Krimi
- Raktaja Krimi
This article explains Madava nidaana7th chapter "Krimi Nidaanam". Causes, pathology and symptoms of Krimi are explained in this chapter.
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Krimi Bheda - types and origin of parasites
Parasites are of two types - external and internal.
They are also counted as four kinds viz, arising from external dirt, kapha, rakta (blood) and purisa (faeces). They are totally twenty-four by name (and in number). (1)
Bahya Krimi - External parasites
External parasites which take their origin from excreta (mala) resemble tila (sesame seed) in size, features and colour, reside in hairs and clothes, have many legs and are small. They are of two kinds namely yuka and liksa. They produce rashes, small pimples, itching and vesicles. (2-3)
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Abhyantara Krimi Nidana - Causes of internal parasites
Persons who indulge daily with foods which are raw (uncooked) or consume foods when previously consumed foods are not properly digested, sweet and sour, water and watery beverages or which are dry powders (flours) and jaggery: those who avoid physical exercise and those who sleep during day time and those who regularly consume incompatible (mutually antagonistic or unwholesome) foods become victims of krimiroga. (4)
Nidana - etiological factors of specific krimis
Use of black gram, foods predominantly consisting of or prepared from flours, sour and salty foods, molasses and leafy vegetables give rise to growth of parasites in the faeces.
Use of mutton, fish, jaggery, milk, curds, fermented sugarcane juice, etc., gives rise to growth of parasites in kapha.
Indulgence in incompatible foods (mutually antagonistic foods), uncooked foods (or taking foods in the presence of indigestion of previously consumed foods) and leafy vegetables give rise to parasites in the blood. (5)
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Abhyantara Krimi Lakshanas
General symptoms of presence of internal parasites
Fever, discolouration, pain in the abdomen, disorders of (the region of) the heart, weakness, giddiness, aversion to food and diarrhoea are the symptoms of the presence of parasites inside the body. (6)
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Kaphaja Krimi - size, shape, numbers, names and symptoms caused by these parasites
The Kaphaja Krimis take their origin from the stomach due to the excess of kapha (excess kapha in the stomach is an ideal environment for these krimis to manifest). The parasites arising from kapha reside in the stomach and move all over the alimentary tract (they move in the upward as well as downward direction). Some resemble a thick leather strip and some are long, resembling earthworms. Some others look like the fresh sprouts of grains; are thin, long, and small or round, white or coppery in colour. They are of seven kinds and are known as antrada, udaravesta, hrdayada, mahaguda, curava, darbhakusuma and sugandha.
They produce nausea, excess salivation, indigestion, anorexia, fainting, vomiting, fever, constipation or blocks in stomach due to ama or in colon due to faeces (enlargement of abdomen), emaciation, too many sneezes and running in the nose. (7-10)
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Raktaja Krimi - size, shape, numbers, names and symptoms caused by these parasites
Parasites arising from rakta (blood) are found in all the organs / channels of blood i.e. raktavaha srotas (liver, spleen, arteries, veins and blood itself). They are very minute, devoid of legs, round in shape and have coppery colour. Among these many are very minute (microscopic) and hence cannot be visible (invisible) to the naked eyes. They are of six kinds and known as kesada, romavidhvamsa, romadvipa, udumbara, sourasa and matara. All these parasites cause kushta (leprosy, skin disorders) or many other diseases / symptoms which resemble kushta. (11-12)
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Purishaja Krimi - size, shape, numbers, names and symptoms caused by these parasites
Parasites arising from purisa (faeces) are found in the large intestine. These parasites usually travel downwards. But when their numbers increase, they can even travel upwards towards the stomach. When they move upwards, they cause faecal smell in the mouth, belching and breath. They are big, round, thin or thick; blue, yellow, white or black in colour. They are of five kinds known as kakeruka makeruka, sausurada, sasula and leliha.
They produce diarrhoea, pain in the abdomen, constipation, emaciation, dryness, pallor (whitish-yellow discolouration), horripilations, poor digestion and itching in the anus. They even move into other places (organs nearby). (13-16)
Thus ends the chapter on Krimi Roga in Nidana Madhava Nidana text written by Acharya Madhavakara.